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Yacht

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One-masted yachts had a very tall mast without a topmast. The topmast was cut into the mast and composed a part of the 'column' mast like in galleots and galleasses. Shtsimanski mentioned that above the 'step' (thickness on a mast) in the iron cartridge generally a light crooked forward topmast was installed. It was a so called 'drum stick' - (in German - Trommel-stock), which carried only a weathercock and a flag with the ship's name on it. According to Chapman this topmast was fastened before the mast with the help of iron yokes. This slight difference shows that some certain local features and client's wishes played a significant role and made every vessel with their own individual appearance.
The mast had two pairs of shrouds. The gaff halyard was laid to the starboard and the hook top was fastened on the port behind the fastening point of the halyard. The horse, which carried a fore-staysail, was laid to the starboard on the deck near the top of the stem. On the bowsprit, often extended by the jib-boom, they placed 1 or two jibs. The both of them were flying jibs and the inner jib was fastened to the fall of the jib-halyard.. The tack of the outer jib was laid through the block on the jib-boom arm.
The mast's sails consisted of a large gaff sail, which had a hook, and a topsail. The gaff with the length of 0.45 of the hook's length, was very shorter than on boards of other gaff vessels. Chapman pointed that the main trysail was fastened to the gaff and the hook and it was also fastened to the mast. Fastening to the hook differed from other similar images.
Yachts had a Holland origin. In Denmark, which belonged to Sweden at that time, yachts appeared in the 17th century when the Swedish royal yacht built in Amsterdam in 70s for Karl the 11th came there. Another yacht 'Mary' also built by citizens of Amsterdam as a gift for Karl the 2nd who was on his way back to England, became the first vessel of that type in the British Isles. Sir A. Deen had taken it as a sample and built two yachts for the king of France Ludovik the 14th in 1674 - 1675. Firstly intended only for entertainment voyages these vessels soon found their way to commercial and navy fleets where they were used as reconnaissance vessels.

 

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